5,000 types of metabolites can be analyzed for cancer biomarkers in urine. The team began a study three years ago, resulting in the identification of 30 metabolites that can be used to discriminate between healthy people and cancer patients. Further validation studies will begin in September at Nagoya University.
According to Sakairi: “For the comprehensive analysis of urine metabolites, we used a liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer (LC/MS). Taking measurements with an LC/MS, and focusing on differences in the water-and fat-solubility of metabolites so as to optimize measurement conditions, we were able to detect over 1,300 metabolites in the urine samples. Using 30 biomarkers from among these, a look at their measured values for 15 cases each of breast cancer patients, colorectal cancer patients, and healthy subjects showed that we had made a breakthrough in being able to discriminate the difference between cancer and not cancer.”
The tiny, wireless, implanted device delivers doses of light over a long period in a programmable and repeatable manner.
PDT is usually used on surface diseases because of low infiltration of light through organic tissue. This remote approach to light conveyance allows PDT to be used on the inner organs with fine control. The team believes that it could successfully treat brain and liver malignancies in the future, and allow therapies that could be tailored during the course of treatment.
Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + Neurotech Silicon Valley on February 26-27, 2018 at Stanford University. Speakers include: Vinod Khosla – Justin Sanchez – Brian Otis – Bryan Johnson – Zhenan Bao – Nathan Intrator – Carla Pugh – Jamshid Ghajar – Mark Kendall – Robert Greenberg – Darin Okuda – Jason Heikenfeld – Bob Knight – Phillip Alvelda – Paul Nuyujukian – Peter Fischer – Tony Chahine – Shahin Farshchi – Ambar Bhattacharyya – Adam D’Augelli – Juan-Pablo Mas – Shreyas Shah– Walter Greenleaf – Jacobo Penide – David Sarno – Peter Fischer
Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + Neurotech Silicon Valley on February 26-27, 2018 at Stanford University. Speakers include: Vinod Khosla – Justin Sanchez – Brian Otis – Bryan Johnson – Zhenan Bao – Nathan Intrator – Carla Pugh – Jamshid Ghajar – Mark Kendall – Robert Greenberg – Darin Okuda – Jason Heikenfeld – Bob Knight – Phillip Alvelda
MIT’s Regina Barzilay has used AI to improve breast cancer detection and diagnosis. Machine learning tools predict if a high-risk lesion identified on needle biopsy after a mammogram will upgrade to cancer at surgery, potentially eliminating unnecessary procedures.
In current practice, when a mammogram detects a suspicious lesion, a needle biopsy is performed to determine if it is cancer. Approximately 70 percent of the lesions are benign, 20 percent are malignant, and 10 percent are high-risk.
Using a method known as a “random-forest classifier,” the AI model resulted in 30 per cent fewer surgeries, compared to the strategy of always doing surgery, while diagnosing more cancerous lesions (97 per cent vs 79 per cent) than the strategy of only doing surgery on traditional “high-risk lesions.”
Trained on information about 600 high-risk lesions, the technology looks for data patterns that include demographics, family history, past biopsies, and pathology reports.
MGH radiologists will begin incorporating the method into their clinical practice over the next year.
Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + Neurotech Silicon Valley on February 26-27, 2018 at Stanford University, featuring: Vinod Khosla – Justin Sanchez – Brian Otis – Bryan Johnson – Zhenan Bao – Nathan Intrator – Carla Pugh – Jamshid Ghajar – Mark Kendall – Robert Greenberg – Darin Okuda – Jason Heikenfeld
Broad and Wyss scientists have used an RNA-targeting CRISPR enzyme to detect the presence of as little as a single target molecule. SHERLOCK (Specific High Sensitivity Enzymatic Reporter UnLOCKing) could one day be used to respond to viral and bacterial outbreaks, monitor antibiotic resistance, and detect cancer.
Demonstrated applications included:
Detecting the presence of Zika virus in patient blood or urine samples within hours;
Distinguishing between the genetic sequences of African and American strains of Zika virus;
Discriminating specific types of bacteria, such as E. coli;
Detecting antibiotic resistance genes;
Identifying cancerous mutations in simulated cell-free DNA fragments; and
Rapidly reading human genetic information, such as risk of heart disease, from a saliva sample.
The tool can be paper-based, not requiring refrigeration, and suited for fast deployment at field hospitals or rural clinics.
The nanorobotic agents can autonomously detect oxygen-depleted tumour areas, and deliver the drug to them. These “hypoxic” zones are often resistant to therapies.
According to professor Martel: “This innovative use of nanotransporters will have an impact not only on creating more advanced engineering concepts and original intervention methods, but it also throws the door wide open to the synthesis of new vehicles for therapeutic, imaging and diagnostic agents. Chemotherapy, which is so toxic for the entire human body, could make use of these natural nanorobots to move drugs directly to the targeted area, eliminating the harmful side effects while also boosting its therapeutic effectiveness.”
While AI systems still occasionally make mistakes, the trend of using the technology for diagnosis, and personalized treatment, with suggested therapies based on assumptions of success, is growing rapidly.
Check-Cap is developing a swallowable imaging capsule that screens for colorectal cancer with out requiring bowel-cleansing preparation.
The ingestible capsule transmits X-rays to the intestinal wall and back, creating 3D images of the colon’s internal surface and enabling detection of clinically significant polyps. Given Imaging, also based in Israel, used light based (vs. X ray) imaging in its similar PillCam capsule. (Which was acquired by Covidien and then Medtronic.)
Data is transmitted to a wearable device that stores the information for offline analysis. Users are notified when the capsule has passed through his/her system. In the next phase, physicians will be able to view the images on any device at any time.
The hope is that with out requiring uncomfortable preparation, more people will participate in colorectal screening, and disease will be discovered early.
Optune by Novocure uses targeted electric fields to disrupt cancer cell division and cause cancer cell death. 500 hospitals globally can prescribe the FDA approved treatment to glioblastoma patients.
“Tumor Treating Fields” are low intensity, alternating electric fields within the intermediate frequency range. TTFields disrupt cell division through physical interactions with key molecules during mitosis. The non-invasive treatment targets solid tumors.
Company founder Yoram Palti said that trials in other tumors will have results starting this year, and he “believes that we will change the way we treat cancer. There are other growths that are more sensitive to our approach than brain cancer. A pilot of 40 lung cancer patients had exciting results in a treatment where the electrodes are only worn 12 hours a day and not 24.”