Transparent, stretchable lens sensor for diabetes, glaucoma detection

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UNIST professors Jang-Ung Park, Chang Young Lee and Franklin Bien, and KNU professors Hong Kyun Kim and Kwi-Hyun Bae, have developed a contact lens sensor to monitor biomarkers for intraocular pressure, diabetes mellitus, and other health conditions. Several attempts have been  made to monitor diabetes via glucose in tears.  The challenge has been poor wearability, as the electrodes used in existing smart contact lenses are opaque, obscuring  one’s view.  Many wearers also complained of significant discomfort from the lens-shaped firm plastic material. The research team addressed this by developing a sensor based on transparent, stretchable, flexible materials  graphene sheets and metal nanowires. This allowed the creation of lenses comfortable and accurate enough for eventual self-monitoring of glucose levels and eye pressure. Patients can transmit their health information through an embedded wireless antenna in the leans, allowing real-time monitoring  The system uses  the wireless antenna to read sensor information, eliminating the need for a separate power source.

Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + NeuroTech Boston on September 19, 2017 at the MIT Media Lab. Featuring Joi Ito – Ed Boyden – Roz Picard – George Church – Tom Insel – John Rogers – Jamshid Ghajar – Phillip Alvelda – Nathan Intrator

Wall sensor monitors walking speed, stride to track health

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MIT’s Dina KatabiChen-Yu Hsu, and colleagues have developed WiGait, a wall sensor that detects walking speed and stride to monitor health. This builds on previous MIT research which showed that radio signals could track breathing and heart rate, without wearables.

The  system works by transmitting low-power radio signals and analyzing how they reflect off  bodies within a radius of 9 to 12 meters. Machine learning algorithms separated walking periods from other activities and found the stable phase within each walking period.  The sensor, when combined with wearable devices, could also track Parkinson’s and MS symptoms, and help predict health events related to  heart failure,  lung disease, kidney failure, and stroke, as well as the risk of falls. Caregivers could also be notified in emergencies.


Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + NeuroTech Boston on September 19, 2017 at the MIT Media Lab. Featuring Joi Ito – Ed Boyden – Roz Picard – George Church – Tom Insel – John Rogers – Jamshid Ghajar – Phillip Alvelda – Nathan Intrator

Tetraplegic patient moves arm with thoughts via BCI/FES system

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Bolu Ajiboye and Case Western colleagues used an implanted  BrainGate2 brain-computer interface to allow a tetraplegia patient to control arm movements via an implanted FES muscle stimulation system.  A robotic arm, which was needed in previous BrainGate experiments,  was no longer required.

Neural activity was recorded from two 96-channel microelectrode arrays implanted in the motor cortex. The implanted brain-computer interface translated recorded brain signals into specific command signals that determine the amount of stimulation to be applied to each functional electrical stimulation electrode in the hand, wrist, arm, elbow and shoulder, and to a mobile arm support.

The researchers first exercised patient’s arm and hand with cyclical electrical stimulation patterns. Over 45 weeks, his strength, range of motion. and endurance improved. He then learned how to use his own brain signals to move a virtual-reality arm on a computer screen. After the 36 electrode FES system was implanted, he was able to make each joint in his right arm move individually. Or,  by thinking about a task such as feeding himself or getting a drink, the muscles are activated in a coordinated fashion.


Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + NeuroTech Boston on September 19, 2017 at the MIT Media Lab. Featuring Joi Ito – Ed Boyden – Roz Picard – George Church – Tom Insel – John Rogers – Jamshid Ghajar – Phillip Alvelda – Nathan Intrator

Sweat sensor for cystic fibrosis detection, drug optimization, glucose monitoring

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Carlos Milla, Ronald Davis, and Stanford and Berkeley colleagues have developed a wearable sweat sensor for detecting cystic fibrosis, diabetes and other diseases.  It can also aid drug development and personalization, and continuously monitor patients.

The flexible sensor/microprocessor system adheres to the skin, stimulates sweat glands, and detects the presence of molecules and ions based on electrical signals.  Increased chloride generates increased electrical voltage at the sensor’s surface.  High levels of chloride ions indicate cystic fibrosis.

Conventional methods for diagnosing cystic fibrosis require a visit to a specialized center, where a patient does not move for 30 minutes, while electrodes stimulate their sweat glands. A lab then measures chloride ions in the sweat to diagnose the disease. This method hasn’t changed in 70 years.

The wearable sweat sensor stimulates skin to produce minute amounts of sweat, quickly evaluates the contents, and sends the data via phone, to the cloud, for immediate analysis.   The system is portable and self-contained, and ideal for use in children, and in underserved communities.

As CF is caused by hundreds of different mutations in the CF gene,  it’s possible to use the sensor to determine which drugs work best for which mutations.

The device was also used to compare levels of glucose in sweat to that in blood.


Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + NeuroTech Boston on September 19, 2017 at the MIT Media Lab. Featuring Joi Ito – Ed Boyden – Roz Picard – George Church – Tom Insel – John Rogers – Jamshid Ghajar – Phillip Alvelda – Nathan Intrator

 

Robotic leg brace helps stroke patients walk

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Toyota’s Welwalk WW-1000 exoskeleton is designed to help those with paralysis on one side of their body walk again. The frame is worn on the affected leg, with a  motor at the knee joint that provides calibrated assistance based on a user’s ability.  Wearers are trained to recover their walking ability over time.

The robotic device is paired with a treadmill and harness that is controlled by medical staff. The  system will be rented to hospitals in Japan for $9000, plus $3200 per month.

The hope is that it will dramatically speed recovery time for stroke patients. The  brace integrates sensors that determine exactly how much support to provide  at any given point, ensuring that patients aren’t over-reliant on support, or rushed before they’re ready to progress.


Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + NeuroTech Boston on September 19, 2017 at the MIT Media Lab. Featuring Joi Ito – Ed Boyden – Roz Picard – George Church – Tom Insel – John Rogers – Jamshid Ghajar – Phillip Alvelda – Nathan Intrator

Verily’s health sensing research watch

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The  Verily Study Watch passively captures health data for continuous care platforms and clinical research. Key features described by the company include:

  • Multiple physiological and environmental sensors are designed to measure relevant signals for studies spanning cardiovascular, movement disorders, and other areas. Examples include electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, electrodermal activity, and inertial movements.
  • A long battery life of up to one week in order to drive better user compliance during longitudinal studies.
  • Large internal storage and data compression allow the device to store weeks’ worth of raw data, thus relaxing the need to frequently sync the device.
  • A powerful processor supports real time algorithms on the device.
  • The firmware is designed to be robust for future extensions, such as over-the-air updates, new algorithms, and user interface upgrades.
  • The display is always on so that time is always shown. The display is low power and high resolution for an appealing look and a robust user interface. Note: currently, only time and certain instructions are displayed. No other information is provided back to the user.

The watch will be used in Verily’s current and forthcoming studies, such as the  Personalized Parkinson’s Project, meant to track progression, and the Baseline study, meant to understand transitions between health and disease.


Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + NeuroTech Boston – Featuring: Joi Ito, Ed Boyden, Roz Picard, George Church, Tom Insel, John Rogers, Jamshid Ghajar, Phillip Alvelda and Nathan Intrator – September 19, 2017 at the MIT Media Lab

CRISPR platform targets RNA and DNA to detect cancer, Zika

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Broad and Wyss scientists have used an RNA-targeting CRISPR enzyme to detect  the presence of as little as a single target molecule. SHERLOCK (Specific High Sensitivity Enzymatic Reporter UnLOCKing) could one day be used to respond to viral and bacterial outbreaks, monitor antibiotic resistance, and detect cancer.

Demonstrated applications included:

  • Detecting the presence of Zika virus in patient blood or urine samples within hours;
  • Distinguishing between the genetic sequences of African and American strains of Zika virus;
  • Discriminating specific types of bacteria, such as E. coli;
  • Detecting antibiotic resistance genes;
  • Identifying cancerous mutations in simulated cell-free DNA fragments; and
  • Rapidly reading human genetic information, such as risk of heart disease, from a saliva sample.

The tool can be paper-based, not requiring refrigeration, and suited for fast deployment at field hospitals or rural clinics.


Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + NeuroTech Boston – Featuring: Joi Ito, Ed Boyden, Roz Picard, George Church, Tom Insel, John Rogers, Jamshid Ghajar, Phillip Alvelda and Nathan Intrator – September 19, 2017 at the MIT Media Lab

Apple reportedly developing non-invasive glucose monitor

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CNBC’s Christina Farr has reported that Apple has been quietly developing a non-invasive, sensor-based glucose monitor.  The technology has apparently advanced to the trial stage.

Diabetes has become a global epidemic.  Continuous monitoring, automatic insulin delivery, and the “artificial pancreas” are significant steps forward, meant to control the disease, and avoid its debilitating side effects.  While some systems consist of micro-needles just below the skin, to date, none are totally non-invasive.

The ideal solution would be the use of the Apple Watch and other fitness/lifestyle trackers to control behavior to the point that the disease is avoided entirely.  However, if diagnosed, a non-invasive glucose sensor would transform the daily life of diabetics.


Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + NeuroTech Boston – Featuring: Joi Ito, Ed Boyden, Roz Picard, George Church, Tom Insel, John Rogers, Jamshid Ghajar, Phillip Alvelda and Nathan Intrator – September 19, 2017 at the MIT Media Lab

VR therapy could reduce acute and chronic pain

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Cedars-Sinai’s Brennan Spiegel has published a study showing that VR therapy could reduce acute and chronic pain.

100 gastrointestinal, cardiac, neurological and post-surgical pain patients with an average pain score of 5.4 were included.  Fifty patients watched a 15-minute nature video. Fifty patients watched a 15-minute animated game with VR goggles.
The patients who watched the nature video had a 13% decrease in  pain scores.  The patients who watched the virtual reality game had a 24% decrease.

Th researchers are not sure how VR actually reduces pain, but thnk that it could be due to immersive distraction.  According to Spiegel:

“When the mind is deeply engaged in an immersive experience, it becomes difficult, if not impossible, to perceive stimuli outside of the field of attention. By ‘hijacking’ the auditory, visual, and proprioception senses, VR is thought to create an immersive distraction that restricts the mind from processing pain.”

Potential side effects of VR include dizziness, vomiting, nausea or epileptic seizures, therefore patients must be carefully screened and monitored.


Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + NeuroTech Boston – Featuring Ed Boyden, Roz Picard, Tom Insel, John Rogers, Jamshid Ghajar and  Nathan Intrator – September 19, 2017 at the MIT Media Lab

Solar powered, highly sensitive, graphene “skin” for robots, prosthetics

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Professor Ravinder Dahiya, at the University of Glasgow, has created a robotic hand with solar-powered graphene “skin” that he claims is more sensitive than a human hand.  The flexible, tactile, energy autonomous “skin” could be used in health monitoring wearables and in prosthetics, reducing the need for external chargers. (Dahiya is now developing a low-cost 3-D printed prosthetic hand incorporating the skin.)

Click to view University of Glasgow video


Join ApplySci at Wearable Tech + Digital Health + NeuroTech Boston – Featuring Roz Picard, Tom Insel, John Rogers, Jamshid Ghajar and  Nathan Intrator – September 19, 2017 at the MIT Media Lab